نگرش‏ های ضد مهاجرتی در روسیه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانش‏ آموخته دکتری روابط بین‏ الملل دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رفسنجان

چکیده

مسأله مهاجرت برای روسیه یک انتخاب نیست، بلکه برای حفظ جمعیت و نیروی کار این کشور ضروری است. با این همه، سیاست مهاجرت روسیه فراگیر و یکپارچه نیست و با مشکل اصلی فقدان بیان صریح اهداف آن مواجه‏ است. علاوه بر این، مهاجرین خارجی اغلب نه ‏تنها در معرض اتهام سلب منافع اجتماعی-اقتصادی شهروندان بومی روسیه قرار دارند، بلکه همچنین به عنوان تهدیدی برای همگونی فرهنگی و قومی جامعه و هویت ملی این کشور نیز تلقی می‌شوند. مقاله حاضر پدیده مهاجرت را هم از منظر رقابت‏های اقتصادی و هم از چشم‏ انداز ملی‏ گرایی، هویت ملی و تعصبات قومی مورد ارزیابی قرار داده است. پرسش اصلی مقاله این است که «دلیل اصلی مخالفت عمومی اقوام عمده روسیه و به ‏ویژه روس‏ها با مهاجرت گسترده به روسیه چیست؟» و این فرضیه به آزمون گذشته شده است که «دلیل اصلی مخالفت عمومی در روسیه با مهاجرت گسترده به این کشور، نه تعصبات نژادی و قومی بلکه ترس از عدم سازگاری مهاجرین با فرهنگ و ارزش‏های جامعه روسیه است». در همین راستا، چارچوب مفهومی پژوهش به تبیین نظری منابع احساسات ضد مهاجرتی از طریق مرور ادبیات پژوهشی پیرامون موضوع اختصاص یافته است. یافته‏ های مقاله نیز که از نوع کتابخانه‏ ای بوده و از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی بهره برده است، مؤید فرضیه مقاله است.

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