نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری سیاستگذاری عمومی، واحد تهران مرکزی

2 استادیار گروه علوم سیاسی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

با فروپاشی اتحاد جماهیر شوروی، سازوکار متمرکز و بسیار پیچیده تخصیص منابع آبی در آسیای مرکزی به مشکل مدیریت آبی بسیار پیچیده فرامرزی تبدیل شد و ادعاهای دوجانبه حل‏ نشده ‏ای را باقی گذاشت. در چنین شرایطی، رودخانه‏ های فرامرزی به عامل بی ‏ثباتی ملی و منطقه‏ ای تبدیل شدند و با ممانعت از روند اتحاد منطقه ‏ای در آسیای مرکزی، منبع جدیدی از مناقشه میان دولت‏ های ساحلی را به‏ وجود آوردند. علاوه بر دلایل طبیعی و تاریخی، پیوند میان موضوعات آب و انرژی، تغییرات اقلیمی، رشد جمعیت و پراکندگی ناموزون آن در آسیای مرکزی بر پیچیدگی ‏های امنیتی مسأله آب در این منطقه دامن زده است. بر این اساس، پرسش اصلی مقاله حاضر این است که «مدیریت رودخانه ‏های فرامرزی در آسیای مرکزی از زمان استقلال تا به امروز بر چه اصولی مبتنی بوده و چه تأثیری بر امنیت منطقه داشته است؟» یافته ‏های مقاله نشان می‏ دهد که «اصول حاکم بر مدیریت رودخانه ‏های فرامرزی در آسیای مرکزی طی سه دهه گذشته مبتنی بر رقابت، خودمحوری و منافع ملی جداگانه جمهوری‏ های آسیای مرکزی بوده که منجر به کاهش همکاری و افزایش مناقشات محلی و ملی بر سر آب شده است و می‏ تواند به ‏مثابه دلیل غیرمستقیم یا مکمل بی‏ ثباتی امنیتی در آسیای مرکزی به‏ شمار آید»

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