اهرم انرژی روسیه در برابر اتحادیه اروپایی در سایه تحریم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین الملل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

2 استاد علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

3 استادیار روابط بین الملل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

چکیده

وجود میزان قابل‌توجهی از وابستگی متقابل نامتقارن در مناسبات انرژی روسیه-اتحادیه اروپایی به نگرانی غرب در خصوص تبدیل منابع انرژی روسیه به سرمایه سیاسی و بهره ‏گیری کرملین از اهرم انرژی برای نفوذ در خارج نزدیک و اروپا، دامن زده است. در عین حال، اتحادیه اروپایی که از مدت‏ها پیش با پیامدهای سیاسی بالقوه وابستگی به انرژی روسیه، دست ‏و پنجه نرم می‏ کند در محیط امنیتی پس از بحران 2014 اوکراین و وضع تحریم ‏های یکجانبه ایالات متحده علیه بخش انرژی روسیه با چالش ‏های جدیدی در تأمین امنیت انرژی اعضای خود مواجه شده است. مقاله حاضر با ترکیب این دو نگرانی و چالش به‏ دنبال پاسخی مناسب برای این پرسش برآمده است که «استفاده روسیه از اهرم صادارت گاز برای کسب نفوذ و پیش‏برد اهداف و منافع خود در اروپا در پی تحریم‏ های غرب علیه این کشور از سال 2014 به بعد، چه تغییری کرده است؟» فرضیه مقاله نیز این است، «اگرچه تحریم‏ های غرب به کاهش ورود سرمایه و فناوری خارجی به بخش انرژی این کشور از سال 2014 به بعد منجر شده، اما نیاز اتحادیه اروپایی به واردات گاز از روسیه طی این مدت افزایش یافته و از این رو، تحریم‏ ها در مجموع تأثیر چشم‏گیری بر کارکرد سلاح انرژی روسیه در برابر اروپا نداشته است». نوع پژوهش در این مقاله توصیفی-تحلیلی بوده و از روش‏ شناسی استنباطی استفاده شده است.

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